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Acid NeutralizerAn alkaline substance used as filter medium, e.g. calcium carbonate (calcite) or magnesium oxide (magnesia) used to neutralize acidic waters, by raising its pH..
Activated CarbonCommonly used for chlorination in water treatment industry. There are generally several forms, namely in block, in granules and in powder. It is produced by heating carbonaceous substances to 700¢XC in the absence of air, so that a carbonized char is formed. It is then put oxidizing at 800¢XC to 1000¢XC with steam and carbon dioxide. This process of activation on carbon surface is so rapid that numerous pores are formed, thus becoming highly absorbent material. Activated carbon is also used for reducing traces of soluble materials, such as organic chemicals, and radon from water.
BacterostaticAble to inhibit the growth of bacteria.
By-pass deviceFor plumbing work in the installation of water filter. A by-pass system allows the choice of using or not using the filter by turning the valve. It also facilitates the replacement of filter cartridge without suspension of the water supply in the house.
Carbon BlockA blend of activated carbon, which is made in any size and shape as a cartridge filter, bound by polyethene or similar materials. The activated carbon block is held in a fixed solid matrix so that the pores are not plugged up. Thus, the absorption capacity of activated carbon block is generally 2 to 4 times greater than that of granular activated carbon. Moreover, it can filter any particles of 0.5 to 1 micron, therefore can effectively remove sediment, insoluble lead, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. See also Activated Carbon.
CatalystA substance that changes the rate of the chemical reaction without being chemically changed by itself.
Cellulose acetate (CA)A tough plastic material used as the semi-permeable
Cellulose triacetate (CTA)Reverse osmosis membrane for chlorinated or similarly disinfected water. It is original and most commonly used membrane as its cost is low as compared with thin film composite (TFC) membrane.
Combined available residual chlorineThe concentration of residual chlorine, which can combine with ammonia (NH3) and/or organic nitrogen in water as chloramine (or other chloro derivative), yet is also able to oxidize organic matter, including bacteria. They are more stable than free available chlorine, and slower in reactions.
CryptosporidiumA waterborne protozoan that forms cysts and can cause acute gastrointestinal disease once ingested. It is resistant to disinfectants like chlorine and UV light but can be removed by filters that removes particles from 3 to 5 microns.
EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency, USA
FDAFood & Drug Administration, USA
Free available residual chlorineIt composes of dissolved chlorine gas, hypochlorous acid and/or hypochlorite ion remaining in water after chlorination.
GACGranular activated carbon (see activated carbon)
GiardiaA waterborne protozoan which forms cysts and is resistant to disinfectants such as chlorine and UV light. However, it can be removed by filters that removes particles of 4 microns or below.
Giardia LambliaFlagellate protozoan which is found in human and animal wastes during its cyst stages. It can cause a severe gastrointestinal disease called giardiasis if ingested through water.
GPMGallons per minute.
The term describes the content of dissolved compounds of calcium and magnesium. The degree of hardness standard as established by the Water Quality Association is:
Term Grain/gall Mg/Litre (ppm)
Soft less than 1.0 less than 17.1
Slightly hard 1.0 to 3.5 17.1 to 60
Moderately hard 3.5 to 7.0 60 to 120
Hard 7.0 to 10.50 120 to 180
Very Hard 10.5 and above 180 and above
Hard water is the water containing total hardness in the amount of 1 grain per gallon or more measured as calcium carbonate equivalent.
IonAs atom or radical, which carries an electric charge as the result of having lost or gained electrons.
KDFKinetic Degradation Fluxion, which is a patented medium composed of high purity copper and zinc granules. It is capable of removing chlorine, soluble heavy metals, and other inorganic contaminants from water through the chemical reduction/oxidation process. KDF is also classified by EPA as a "pesticidal device" used in water filtration. When immersed in water, it will create a feeble electostatic current which can inhibit the growth of algae, fungi and bacteriostatic. It is also a catalyst that enhances the capacity of GAC by 500%.
Micro filtrationFiltration of particles and micro organics in the size of 0.1 to 2 microns in diameter.
MicronA micron, or micrometer, or mm in symbol equals to one millionth of a metre, or 0.001 mm. Under ideal conditions, the unaided eye can see particles as small as 10 microns. The diameter of hair is around 75 microns on average.
MoleculeThe smallest particle of an element or compound that retains all of the characteristics of the element of compound.
Nano filtrationMembrane filtration of particles in the size range of 300 to 1000 molecular weight range, such as humic acid and organic colour bodies present in water, and can reject salts. Nano filtration is also known as membrane softening as it can remove hardness ions. The process falls between reverse osmosis and ultra filtration in water filtration spectrum.
NSFNational Sanitation Foundation, USA.
OTO SolutionOrthotolidine solution is an indicator of chlorine residual. Formation of a yellow compound when solution is added into water indicates chlorine presence.
Particle filtrationFiltration of particles in the size range of two microns or larger in diameter. It is typically the application of cartridge filter, media filters or multi-media filters (depth filtration).
PCBPolychlorinated Biphenyls. Industrial wastes from electrical transformers, etc. in water which affects nervous system, kidney & liver.
pHThe scale to determine the acidity or the alkalinity of a solution. The value varies from 0 to 14. If pH value is 7, the solution is neutral, i.e. neither acidic nor alkaline. The solution is acidic if pH value is below 7, and is alkaline if its value is above 7.
PolypropyleneA thermoplastic polymer of propylene resembling polyethylene. It is commonly used for making plastic water pipes tubings and fittings.
PPMParts per million.
PSIpounds per square inch, unit of pressure.
Radial flowThe flow pattern in which water flows from the outside of a filter cartridge to the centre core.
RedoxShort form of Reduction/Oxidation in a chemical reaction.
Reserve OsmosisOsmosis is a natural phenomenon that water will pass from dilute solution containing fewer dissolved solids to the concentrated solution, through a semi-permeable membrane separating the two solutions. Reverse Osmosis is a process that the water is forced by pressure to flow in the reverse direction (i.e. from the concentrated solution to the dilute one), so that undesirable materials from water as small as 0.0005 micron are removed. The unique properties of the membrane allow only water molecules and dissolved oxygen to pass through.
ResinUsually organic polymer beads used in softening, removing dissolved salts and heavy metals from water by ion exchange.
Thin Film Composite (TFC)A polyamide-based polymer membrane used as the semi-permeable reverse osmosis membrane for non-chlorinated water. The membrane is bacteria resistant and accepts high pH content and high temperature.
THMAbbreviation of Trihalomethane. It is a group of organic chemicals formed in water when chlorine reacts with some water-borne organic, such as humic acids from decayed vegetation. It is suspected of being carcinogenic, i.e. causing cancer. Chloroform is one of the most common THMs found in chlorinated water.
Total dissolved solids (TDS)The total weight of solid that are dissolved in water, expressed in p.p.m. per unit volume of water.
Total residual chlorineTotal amount of available chlorine remain in water after a given contact time equals the combined available residual chlorine and the free available residual chlorine.
Total suspended solidsThe particle which can be removed from a solution by filtration, usually specified as the matter which will not pass through 0.45 micron pore-diameter filter.
Ultra filtrationMembrane filtration of particles in the size of 0.002 to 0.1 micron range, typically rejecting organics over 1000 molecular weight while passing organics and ions.